In recent years, the hypothalamus has emerged as a novel neurogenic niche in the adult brain. A significant number of cells are not only “born” constitutively in the adult hypothalamus, but many of these cells differentiate into neurons, integrate
into pre-existing neural circuitries, and support specific hypothalamic functions, including control of metabolism and energy balance. This review provides the current understanding of the biology and mechanisms of adult hypothalamic neurogenic
processes and its contributions to hypothalamic functions, especially sleep–wake regulation. A hypothesis that a decline in hypothalamic neurogenic processes may be a contributor to the sleep–wake disruption in aging, and thus, strategies aimed at improving neurogenesis may help slow down or alleviate aging-associated sleep–wake disturbance is discussed.